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The essays in Part I map some principal aspects of Restoration poetic Home /; Series /; Studies in Renaissance Literature /; The Making of Restoration Poetry.
Table of contents

Juan Ruiz de Alarcon. Enlightenment thinkers sought to apply systematic thinking to all forms of human activity, carrying it to the ethical and governmental spheres in exploration of the individual, society and the state. In part a revolt against aristocratic, social, and political norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction against the rationalization of nature, in art and literature Romanticism stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the awe experienced in confronting the sublimity of nature.

Mr. Osborne - British Literature Unit Preview 2 - The English Renaissance

It elevated folk art, nature and custom. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism," Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. Modernism was rooted in the idea that "traditional" forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, and daily life had become outdated; therefore it was essential to sweep them aside.

The intellectual movement that thinks objectively and scientifically about the causes of the decadence of Spain as a nation between the 19th and the 20th century is called Regenerationism. It expresses a pessimist judgement about Spain. The regenerationist intellectuals divulgated their studies in journals with a big diffusion, so the movement expanded. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by U. The "Disaster" of led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of "Regeneracionismo". Nevertheless, it stuck as a way to describe a group of writers who turned in content from the more general exploration of universal middle class values characteristic of Nineteenth Century Realism to an obsession with questions of a more national nature.

Their articles, essays, poems, and novels exploring Spanish history and geography carried existential overtones, expressing overall a sense of deep malaise at the social injustice, political bungling, and cultural indifference evident in contemporary Spanish society. Certainly, the terminology possesses a certain organizational elegance and indeed, recognizes the significant impact of major political and cultural events on changing literary expressions and tastes for example, the connection, or a literary celebration that briefly united nearly every major vanguard poet in Spain.

Their genre of choice were the essay and the article, their arguments more systematic, and their tastes, more European. In he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Many of this generation were full-time university professors, while others spent periods as guest teachers and students. This group of poets continues to be, without contest, the most celebrated and studied of Spain's twentieth century writers. The writing of this supposed generation can be roughly divided into three moments. After , the Generation's writing increasingly displays the imprint of the political and social stresses that would lead to Spain's bloody civil war.

The Spanish Civil War , lasting from July to April , had a devastating impact on the trajectory of Spanish letters. In July , Spain was at the height of its Silver Age. Every major writer of the three major generations—, , and —was still alive and productive. Those of and were at the height or just reaching the height of their literary powers.

Several were recognized among Western civilization's most talented and influential writers. All but a small handful of the remaining writers had fled into exile, dispersed across the length of the American continent, most never to enjoy the close associations of conferences, tertulias, and theater premiers that had so often united them in pre-war Madrid.


Among his important works, Perito en lunas from his pre-war surrealist days and Viento del pueblo , evidence of the work of a soldier-poet, stand out. The earliest years of the post-war were characterized more by hunger, repression, and suffering than by any significant literature. The published works of this period were true to pseudo-fascist dictator Francisco Franco's reactionary vision of a second Spanish golden age than to the material and existential anguish facing the majority of the country's population of the time.

Neo-baroque poetry and paens to Franco's Spain satisfied the censors but has enjoyed no subsequent critical shelf-life. Ironically, the narrative production of one of Franco's censors would provide the first sign of literary revival in post-war Spain.

Medieval Literature (500 – 1500)

Cela was to remain for the next five decades as one of Spain's most important novelists, eventually receiving the Nobel Prize for literature in By the middle of the next decade, a whole new generation of novelists was latching onto the early models laid down by Cela and Laforet. Spanish poetry experienced renewal along similar lines. However, by the mids, just as with the novel, a new generation which had only experienced the Spanish civil war in childhood was coming of age.

That is, while these younger poets were still interested in talking about Spain, they were at least equally focused on the interactive processes of communication with the reader who was contemporaneously living these experiences.

By the early s, the brief social realist burst in narrative was already growing stale. Numerous novelists took a brief hiatus from writing. While arguably pulling Spanish narrative by the collar from the relative dark of social realism towards the aesthetic standards of Europe's most elite avant-garde, many of these novels proved almost unreadable to much of the public, a reality nicely embodied at the end of Juan Goytisolo's trilogy when an already deconstructed Spanish prose gradually transforms into an unreadable Arabic.

The novel's experimentation was shadowed in Spanish poetry. The works of Pere Gimferrer, Guillermo Carnero, and Leopoldo Panero, arguably the most important poets of the group, manifest a decidedly baroque style full of oblique cultural references, metapoetic devices, and other forms of extreme poetic self-consciousness spilling into the precious.

Like the works of the New Novelists, this poetry was for a select group of readers, if not exclusive to the poets themselves. When Franco at last died in November , the important work of establishing democracy had an immediate impact on Spanish letters.

English & Related Literature

Elitist narrative and poetry quickly gave way to narrative and poetry interested anew in not merely teaching via content or style but in delighting. Storytelling became the mantra for a new generation of Spanish novelists. Eduardo Mendoza 's La verdad sobre el caso Savolta invited readers to escape to the roaring s of Spain's pre-political, culturally vibrant Silver Age. During the s, Spanish narrative began appearing regularly on best seller lists for the first time since the pre-war era and many of this new generation became literary and cultural celebrities, living off their work as writers with all its blessing and curses, including the obligation to publish or perish.

By the s, the pressure to produce for the large publishing houses was clearly diminishing the early literary promise of some of these writers. The big money available through novel publishing manifest itself in the s in the explosion of literary prizes, awarded in Spain, unlike the UK's Man Booker or the U.

Definition and Characteristics of Neoclassical Poetry | Owlcation

Literary prizes became little more than publicity opportunities. The long-standing Planeta and Nadal prizes, already media events, grew in importance and remuneration. Most carried large sums for the winners and guaranteed—often obligated—long international book tours. Into this economically charged mix stepped two new phenomena, the literary superstar and the literary celebrity. Many of his novels have been converted into popular films.

A lesser figure as far as novel sales, but still important to the overall industry is the literary celebrity. These writers proved an excellent marketing phenomenon. The Bait. Break of Day. A Burnt Ship. The Calm. The Canonization. The Dream. The Ecstasy. Elegy IX: The Autumnal. Elegy V: His Picture. The Expiration. The Flea. The Funeral.

Good Friday, Riding Westward. The Good-Morrow. Holy Sonnets: At the round earth's imagin'd corners, blow. Holy Sonnets: Batter my heart, three-person'd God. Holy Sonnets: Death, be not proud. Holy Sonnets: I am a little world made cunningly. Holy Sonnets: If poisonous minerals, and if that tree. Holy Sonnets: Show me dear Christ, thy spouse so bright and clear. Holy Sonnets: Since she whom I lov'd hath paid her last debt.

Holy Sonnets: This is my play's last scene. Holy Sonnets: Thou hast made me, and shall thy work decay?

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A Hymn to God the Father. The Indifferent.

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A Lame Begger. A Lecture upon the Shadow.